10 Changes after death 2. Late post-mortem changes – the results of chemical (enzymatic), bacterial and fungal influences on the corpse, as well as animal predation. Autolysis Mummification rot Adipoceric skeletonization Post-mortem injuries 13 Supervital reactions and vital reactionsThe supravital reaction (transvital, postvital) is the permanent ability of certain organs, tissues and cells to maintain physiological processes for some time after death. The most common supravital reactions are: Response of pupils to drugs (atropine, scopolamine) Muscle reactivity: – mechanical (contraction after tapping or pinching) – electrical (reaction to Faraday current) cellular reactions (sperm motility, vital staining of blood cells, etc.) Vital reaction – detection of a lesion in the living organism General vital reactions: bleeding, embolism, signs of carbon monoxide in the blood, soot in the respiratory tract, etc. Local vital reactions: inflammation, oedema, necrosis, wound healing, local repair processes, etc. 76 Medico-legal aspects of pregnancy and abortionThe development of methods of artificial induction of pregnancy has given rise to many medico-legal problems. 1. Artificial insemination 2. In vitro fertilization 1. Artificial insemination – producing pregnancy in a woman by introducing seminal fluid directly into the cervix through a cannula.
There are two types of artificial insemination: artificial insemination by husband artificial insemination by donor – the donor must not be related, he must be over 18 years old and preferably have children. Tests for the absence of chronic diseases and family abnormalities should be carried out before donation 12 Changes after death Mummification – the process of dehydration of the body in hot, dry conditions with draft. Partial mummification of the fingers is also a common finding in rot. Adipocere – substance produced by hydrolytic conversion of dead body fat into a soap-like waxy compound under wet conditions. Skeletonization – the process of transforming a corpse into a skeleton. In temperate climates, most soft tissues disintegrate after years, tendons and ligaments survive longer. After a few years, the skeleton is disarticulated. Hair, nails and teeth are resistant body parts that remain intact for at least 20 years and can be subject to forensic examination. 98 Drug dependence and abuseThe danger of drug addiction: repeated injection of the drug leads to venous thrombosis, phlebitis, fibrosis, abscesses, fatty atrophy and necrosis, chronic myositis (dark, hard, cord-shaped veins under the skin and silvery linear scars, as well as depressive areas on the limbs) Injection of crushed non-sterile tablets causes microembolism, giant cell granulomas and abscesses in the lungs and liver The use of Joint syringes and needles are a risk factor for receiving hepatitis B and C, HIV infection, infective endocarditis, sepsis Poor diet and decreased resistance – pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia Accidents Death from poisoning 86 Deaths and injuries in early childhoodInjuries resulting from physical abuse of children (actual child abuse): 4. Head trauma (most common cause of death): subdural hematoma. The mechanism is: direct impact or violent and violent tremor (“shaken baby syndrome”) fracture of the skull following a jet against a hard surface (ground), blow, violent blow, cerebral edema diffuse axonal lesion 5. Visceral lesions: mesenteric intestinal accident rupture of hepatic laceratin and spleen renal decapsulation rupture of the bladder 6.
Other lesions: burns, scalds on the skin – the instruments are: hot iron, hot water, hot cigarette bites 17 Interruption of circulation Myocardial infarction Thanatology Ways of death Interruption of circulation Syncope (sing`kpee) Mechanical trauma Shock Myocardial infarction 33 Examination of woundsThe definition of “wound” suggests that the injury was caused by a deliberate act. The definition of “injury” suggests that the injury results from any cause, including a pure accident. Attack – is the threat of an attack or the actual attack, the attacking person is an “attacker”. Homicide – usually intentional or non-accidental homicide caused by another person. Murder – is a homicide when the murderer intends to kill or wants to cause serious injury. Manslaughter – is homicide if the murderer does not intend to cause death or serious injury, but the murder was the result of an illegal act or negligence, or if the murderer was provoked by the actions of the victim. In some countries, manslaughter refers to any accidental homicide, even if it results in death, such as recklessly driving a car. 15 Internal examination of the body. AutopsyAutopsy – complete external and internal post-mortem examination of the body for the purpose of estimating the cause, nature and mechanism of death. Autopsy is a highly specialized procedure, which should ideally only be performed by an experienced forensic pathologist.
The value of the autopsy: The death certificate may be false or inaccurate in 50% of cases. The autopsy will determine the cause of death and should prevent the killings from being concealed. It is a source of information that can be useful for identification. 112 Judicial documentation.2 Expert opinions can only be given by professional experts who have met all the requirements prescribed by law concerning living and deceased persons The structure of an expert opinion: Part 1. Introduction Medical Expert: Affiliation, address Patient or deceased – Name, address, age, Who requested the report, where and when the investigation took place, what background documents and investigations were the source part. 2. Results and diagnoses Brief description of the reason for the examination and brief note of the circumstances of the patient`s evolution, results of the external and internal examination of the police of subsequent examinations: toxicological, serohaematological, histological, etc. Forensic interpretation of disclosed circumstances Explanation of the mechanism of death 31 Blood stains Bleeding comes mainly from open wounds, sometimes natural openings (mouth, nostrils, ears, opening, vagina). Bloodstains can show us the way (the way) of death. Location of blood stains – wall, ceiling, floor, other objects – skin, clothing Blood flies in the air (splashes).
Drops of blood and splashes form blood stains on the surface. Priests depend on the angle of impact and height of fall: right angle – oblique angle of the circular spot – tapered spot, oval spot, a small separate globule in front of the spot sliding movement of the body during or after bleeding leads to the formation of blood smears.