Second, especially since abandoning investment policy and fiscal policy, the British government has focused on monetary policy. The Bank of England, as the central bank of the United Kingdom, is able to influence the lending rates of private banks by aligning their lending rate with them (the “Bank of England base rate”) by buying large quantities of assets guaranteed by the British government, changing reserve requirements or setting interest rates. Getting private banks to lower their interest rates stimulates more loans and borrowing, increases the amount of credit and money in the economy, encourages companies to hire more people, and can therefore reduce employment. However, section 11 of the Bank of England Act 1998 provides that the Bank`s monetary policy objectives are (a) to maintain price stability and (b) subject thereto, to support “the economic policies of Her Majesty`s Government, including its objectives of growth and employment”. While the Bank of England can use monetary policy to encourage investment to full employment, it has not done so because it has also been influenced by theories of “natural” unemployment and has triggered higher inflation. Thirdly, the UK Government exercises considerable control over unemployment through its social security system. Since the abolition of the poor laws and the introduction of social security, the government has paid people money if they could not find work. It was believed that paying insurance pushed the government to promote full employment while increasing workers` bargaining power: workers do not have to accept a job with poverty wages because they will have a minimum income to survive. This is part of the universal right to social security.  Today, under the Jobseekers Act 1995, jobseeker`s benefit is paid for up to 182 days if someone has contributed for more than 2 years, but for people over 25, it was only £73.10 per week in 2019. In addition, under sections 6 to 6J of the Social Welfare Reform Act 2012, the Secretary of State may make rules to set out the working conditions of persons claiming unemployment benefits. In R.
(Reilly) v. Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, two complainants argued that the conditions of free work were ultra vires and also constituted forced labour. The foreign minister lost on the ultra vires issue, but the Supreme Court refused to rule that workfare amounted to forced labor.  Nevertheless, it stems from William Beveridge`s original conception of a welfare state with full employment in a free society. Fourth, members must be treated fairly when disciplined by a union in accordance with the principles of natural justice developed by the courts. In Roebuck v. NUM (Yorkshire Region) No 2, for example, Justice Templeman found it unfair for Arthur Scargill to sit on the appeal committee of journalists who have been disciplined for their actions as witnesses in a defamation suit brought by Scargill himself. In another example, Esterman v. NALGO, it was stated that Ms. Esterman could not be punished if she accepted an activity outside of work as a vote count, especially since the union`s power to withhold her was not clearly contained in its own rules.
Fifth, members may not be expelled from the union without just cause, as provided for in the constitution under section 174 of TULRCA 1992. This could include expulsion under the Bridlington principles, an agreement between unions to maintain solidarity and not try to poach members from others.  However, the legislation was amended as a result of ASLEF v. United Kingdom to clarify that unions may exclude members whose beliefs or actions run counter to the legitimate aims of the union. In ASLEF, a member named Lee was involved in the British National Party, a neo-fascist organization dedicated to white supremacy, and Lee himself was involved in violence and intimidation against Muslims and women. The labour movement has always negotiated a shorter work week because it increases economic productivity: the current maximum is 48 hours, averaged over 17 weeks, but this does not apply to the self-employed or to individuals who can determine their own hours of work.